Bibliographia. Annotated Bibliographies by Raul Corazzon | e-mail:

Synoptic Problem: Bibliography of the studies in English


  1. Abakuks, Andris. 2015. The Synoptic Problem and Statistics. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press.

  2. Adamczewski, Bartosz. 2010. Q or not Q? The So-called Triple, Double, and Single traditions in the Synoptic Gospels. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

  3. Aland, Kurt, ed. 1996. Synopsis of the Four Gospels. Greek-English Edition of the Synopsis quattuor evangeliorum. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies.

    First edition 1972; 2nd completely revised edition 1975; 6th completely revised edition 1983; 8th corected edition 1987.

  4. Allen Jr., O. Wesley. 2013. Reading the Synoptic Gospels: Basic Methods for Interpreting Matthew, Mark, and Luke. St. Louis MO: Chalice Press.

    Second revised and expanded edition; first edition 2003.

  5. Asgeirsson, Jon Ma, De Troyer, Kristin, and Meyer, Marvin W., eds. 2000. From Quest to Q: Festschrift James M. Robinson. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  6. Barr, Allan. 1995. A Diagram of Synoptic Relationships: In Four Colors. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.

    Second Edition with a New Introduction by James Barr.

    First edition 1938.

  7. Becker, Eve-Marie, and Erunesson, Anders, eds. 2011. Mark and Matthew I. Comparative Readings: Understanding the Earliest Gospels in their First-Century Settings. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  8. Bellinzoni Jr., Arthur J., ed. 1985. The Two-Source Hypothesis: A Critical Appraisal. Macon: Mercer University Press.

  9. Black, David Alan, and Beck, David R., eds. 2001. Rethinking the Synoptic Problem. Grand Rapids (MI): Baker Academic.

  10. Brooks, Stephenson. 1987. Matthew’s Community: The Evidence of His Special Sayings Material. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

    Reprinted New York: Bloomsbury 2015.

  11. Bultmann, Rudolf. 1963. The History of the Synoptic Tradition. New York: Harper & Row.

    Revised edition 1968.

    Translation by John Marsh of Die Geschichte der synoptischen Tradition, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1921 (second revised edition 1931; fourth edition 1958 with a Supplement by Gerd Theissen).

  12. Burkett, Delbert. 2004. Rethinking the Gospel Sources: From Proto-Mark to Mark. London: T & T Clark.

  13. ———. 2009. Rethinking the Gospel Sources. Volume 2: The Unity and Plurality of Q. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

  14. Butler, B. C. 1951. The Originality of St. Matthew: A Critique of the Two-Document Hypothesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Reprinted 2011.

  15. Casey, Maurice. 2002. An Aramaic Approach to Q. Sources for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  16. Catchpole, David. 1993. The Quest for Q. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.

    Reprint New York: Bloomsbury 2015.

  17. Colins, Raymond F. 1983. Introduction to the New Testament. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

    Chapter Two: Hisatorical-Critical Methodology, pp. 115-155.

  18. Crook, Zeba A. 2011. Parallel Gospels: A Synopsis of Early Christian Writing. New York: Oxford University Press.

  19. Damm, Alex. 2013. Ancient Rhetoric and the Synoptic Problem. Clarifying Markan Priority. Leuven: Peeters.

  20. Derico, T. M. 2016. Oral Tradition and Synoptic Verbal Agreement

    Eugene (OR): Pickwick Publications.

  21. Derrenbacker Jr., Robert A. 2005. Ancient Compositional Practices and the Synoptic Problem. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  22. Derrenbacker Jr., Robert A., and Kloppenborg, John S. 2001. "Self-Contradiction in the IQP? A Reply to Michael Goulder." Journal of Biblical Literature:57-76.

    IQP = International Q Project.

  23. Dungan, David L., ed. 1990. The Interrelations of the Gospels: A Symposium Led by M.-É. Boismard, W. R. Farmer, F. Neirynck, Jerusalem 1984. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  24. ———. 1999. A History of the Synoptic Problem: The Canon, the Text, the Composition and the Interpretation of the Gospels. New York: Doubleday.

  25. Dunn, James D. G. 2013. The Oral Gospel Tradition. Grand Rapids (MI): Eerdmans.

  26. Edwards, James R. 2009. The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition. Grand Rapids (MI): Eerdmans.

  27. Edwards, Richard Alan. 1975. A Concordance to Q. Missoula: Scholars Press.

  28. ———. 1976. A Theology of Q: Eschatology, Prophecy, and Wisdom. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

  29. Eve, Eric. 2021. Relating the Gospels: Memory, Imitation and the Farrer Hypothesis. New York: Bloomsbury.

  30. Farmer, William R. 1964. The Synoptic Problem: A Critical Analysis. New Yorl: Macmillan.

    A critical review of the literary relationship between Mathhew, Mark, and Luke.

  31. ———. 1969. Synopticon: The Verbal Agreement between the Greek Texts of Matthew, Mark and Luke Contextually Exhibited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  32. ———, ed. 1983. New Synoptic Studies: The Cambridge Gospel Conference and Beyond. Macon: Mercer University Press.

  33. ———. 1998. "The Present State Of The Synoptic Problem." In Literary Studies in Luke-Acts: Essays in Honor of Joseph B. Tyson, edited by Thompson, Richard P. and Phillips, Thomas E., 11-36. Macon (GA): Mercer University Press.

  34. Farrer, Austin M. 1955. "On Dispensing with Q." In Studies in the Gospels: Essays in Memory of R. H. Lightfoot, edited by Nineham, Dennis E., 55-88. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Reprinted in Arthur J. Bellinzoni Jr., Joseph B. Tyson, William O. Walker Jr. (eds.) , The Two-Source Hypothesis. A Critical Appraisal, Macon, (GA): Mercer University Press, 1985, pp. 321-356.

  35. Fleddermann, Harry T. 1995. Mark and Q: A Study of the Overlap Texts. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

    With an assessment by Frans Neirynck.

  36. Focant, Camille. 1993. The Synoptic Gospels. Source Criticism and the New Literary Criticism. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  37. Foster, P., Gregory, A., Kloppenborg, John S., and Verheyden, Joseph, eds. 2011. New Studies in the Synoptic Problem. Oxford Conference, April 2008: Essays in Honour of Christopher M. Tuckett Leuven: Peeters.

  38. Goodacre, Mark S. 1996. Goulder and the Gospels: An Examination of a New Paradigm. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

    An Examination of a New Paradigm.

  39. ———. 2001. The Synoptic Problem: A Way Through the Maze. London: T & T Clark.

  40. ———. 2002. The Case against Q: Studies in Markan Priority and the Synoptic Problem. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International.

  41. ———. 2012. Thomas and the Gospels: The Case for Thomas's Familiarity with the Synoptics. Grand Rapids (MI): Eerdmans.

  42. Goodacre, Mark S., and Perrin, Nicholas, eds. 2004. Questioning Q: A Multidimensional Critique. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press.

  43. Goulder, Michael D. 1978. "On putting Q to the test." New Testament Studies no. 24:218-234.

  44. ———. 2002. "The Derrenbacker-Kloppenborg Defense." Journal of Biblical Literature no. 121:331-336.

  45. Havener, Ivan. 1987. Q, the Sayings of Jesus. With a reconstruction of Q by Athanasius Polag. Wimington (DE): Glazier.

  46. Hawkins, John C. 1909. Horae Synopticae. Contributions to the study of the Synpotic Problem. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

    Second edition, revised and supplemented. (First edition 1898).

  47. Head, Peter M. 1997. Christology and the Synoptic Problem: An Argument for Markan Priority. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  48. Honoré, A. M. 1968. "A Statistical Study of the Synoptic Problem." Novum Testamentum no. 10:95-147.

  49. Horman, John. 2011. A Common Written Greek Source for Mark & Thomas. Waterloo (On): Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion.

    "This book uncovers an early collection of sayings, called N, that are ascribed to Jesus and are similar to those found in the Gospel of Thomas and in Q, a document believed to be a common source, with Mark, for Matthew and Luke. In the process, the book sheds light on the literary methods of Mark and Thomas. A literary comparison of the texts of the sayings of Jesus that appear in both Mark and Thomas shows that each adapted an earlier collection for his own purpose. Neither Mark nor Thomas consistently gives the original or earliest form of the shared sayings; hence, Horman states, each used and adapted an earlier source. Close verbal parallels between the versions in Mark and Thomas show that the source was written in Greek. Horman's conclusion is that this common source is N. This proposal is new, and has implications for life of Jesus research. Previous research on sayings attributed to Jesus has treated Thomas in one of two ways: either as an independent stream of Jesus sayings written without knowledge of the New Testament Gospels or as a later piece of pseudo-Scripture that uses the New Testament as source. This book rejects both views."

  50. Horsley, Richard A., ed. 2006. Oral Performance, Popular Tradition, and Hidden Transcript in Q. Leiden: Brill.

  51. Horsley, Richard A., and Draper, Jonathan A. 1999. Whoever Hears You Hears Me: Prophets, Performance and Tradition in Q. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International.

  52. Hultgren, Stephen. 2002. Narrative Elements in the Double Tradition: A Study of Their Place within the Framework of the Gospel Narrative. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

  53. Humphrey, Hugh M. 2006. From Q to "Secret" Mark: A Composition History of the Earliest Narrative Theology. New York: T & T Clark.

  54. Jacobson, Arland D. 2005. The First Gospel: An Introduction to Q. Eugene (OR): Wipf & Stock.

  55. Jones, Brice C. 2011. Matthean and Lukan Special Material. A Brief Introduction with Texts in Greek and English. Eugene (OR): Wipf & Stock.

  56. Joseph, Simon J. 2012. Jesus, Q, and the Dead Sea Scrolls: A Judaic Approach to Q. Tübingen: Moh Siebeck.

  57. Kelber, Werner H. 1983. The Oral and the Written Gospel: The Hermeneutics of Speaking and Writing in the Synoptic Tradition, Mark, Paul, and Q. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

    Reprint: Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1997.

  58. Kirk, Alan. 1998. The Composition of the Sayings Source. Genre, Synchrony and Wisdom Redaction in Q. Leiden: Brill.

  59. ———. 2016. Q in Matthew: Ancient Media, Memory, and Early Scribal Transmission of the Jesus Tradition. New York: Bloomsbury.

  60. Klinghardt, Matthias. 2008. "The Marcionite Gospel and the Synoptic Problem: A New Suggestion." Novum Testamentum no. 50:1-27.

  61. Kloppenborg, John S. 1987. The Formation of Q: Trajectories in Ancient Wisdom Collections. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

  62. ———. 1988. Q Parallels. Synopsis, Critical Notes & Concordance. Santa Rosa (CA): Polebridge Press.

  63. ———. 1994. The Shape of Q: Signal Essays on the Sayings Gospel Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

  64. ———. 2000. Excavating Q. The History and Setting of the Sayings Gospel. Minneapolis: Fortess Press.

  65. ———. 2004. "On Dispensing with Q?: Goodacre on the Relation of Luke to Matthew." New Testament Studies no. 49:210-236.

  66. ———. 2008. Q, the Earliest Gospel: An Introduction to the Original Stories and Sayings of Jesus. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

  67. ———. 2011. "Synopses and the Synoptic Problem." In New Studies in the Synoptic Problem, 51-85. Leuven: Peeters.

  68. ———. 2014. Synoptic Problems: Collected Essays. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  69. ———. 2014. "A New Synoptic Problem: Mark Goodacre and Simon Gathercole on Thomas." Journal for the Study of the New Testament no. 36:199-239.

    Abstract: "Recent analyses of the Gospel of Thomas by Mark Goodacre and Simon Gathercole make only a partial and, in several instances, unconvincing case for Thomas’s knowledge of the Synoptic Gospels. Other neglected data suggests that some portions of Thomas are substantially autonomous. This calls for a more complex understanding of the composition of Thomas, one that recognizes its construction as a ‘school text’ or ‘anthology’, drawing on multiple and parallel streams of the Jesus tradition."


    Gathercole, Simon 2012. The Composition of the Gospel of Thomas: Original Language and Influences (SNTSMS, 151; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

    Goodacre, Mark S. 2012. Thomas and the Gospels: The Case for Thomas’s Familiarity with the Synoptics (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans).

  70. ———. 2016. "Composing Matthew by Recomposing Q: The Composition of Matt 23–25." In An Early Reader of Mark and Q, edited by van Belle, Gilbert and Verheyden, Josef, 187-215. Leuven: Peeters.

  71. Kloppenborg, John S., and Verheyden, Joseph, eds. 2020. Theological and Theoretical Issues in the Synoptic Problem. New York: Bloomsbury.

  72. Knox, Wilfred L. 1953. The Sources of the Synoptic Gospels. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Posthumously edited by Henry Chadwick.

    Vol. 1: St. Mark; Vol. 2: St. Luke and St. Matthew.

  73. Koester, Helmut. 1990. Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International.

  74. Kowalczyk, Andzej. 2013. The Synoptic Problem. Pelplin: Bernardinum.

  75. Kümmel, Werner Georg. 1975. Introduction to the New Testament. Nashville: Abingdon.

    Translated by Howard C. Kee.

    Part One: The Formation of the New Testament Writings; A. The Narrative Books; I. The Synoptic Gospels and the Acts; § 5. The Synoptic Problem, pp. 38-79.

  76. Labahn, Michael, and Schmidt, Andreas, eds. 2001. Jesus, Mark, and Q. The Teaching of Jesus and Its Earliest Records. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

  77. Longstaff, Thomas R. W. 1977. Evidence of Conflation in Mark? A Study in the Synoptic Problem. Missoula: Scholars Press for the Society of Biblical Literature.

  78. Longstaff, Thomas Richmond Willis, and Thomas, Page Allison, eds. 1989. The Synoptic Problem. A Bibliography, 1716-1988. Macon: Mercer University Press.

  79. MacDonald, Dennis Ronald. 2012. Two Shipwrecked Gospels: The Logois of Jesus and Papias's Exposition of Logia about the Lord. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

  80. MacEwen, Robert K. 2015. Matthean Posteriority: An Exploration of Matthew's Use of Mark and Luke As a Solution to the Synoptic Problem. London: T & T Clark.

  81. Mack, Burton L. 1993. The Lost Gopel: The Book of Q and Christian Origins. New York: HarperSanFrancisco.

  82. McIver, Robert. 2011. Memory, Jesus, and the Synoptic Gospels. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

  83. McKnight, Scot. 1988. Interpreting the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.

  84. McNicol, Allan J. , Dungan, David L., and Peabody, David B., eds. 1996. Beyond the Q Impasse: Luke’s Use of Matthew. Valley Forge: Trinity Press International.

  85. Meijboom, Hajo Uden. 1993. A History and Critique of the Origin of the Marcan Hypothesis, 1835-1866. A Contemporary Report Rediscovered. Louvain: Peeters.

    Translated and edited by John J. Kiwiet.

  86. Monaghan, Christopher J. 2010. A Source Critical Edition of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke in Greek and English. Roma: Gregorian & Biblical Press.

    Two volumes.

  87. Mournet, Terence. 1969. Oral Tradition and Literary Dependency. Variability and Stability in the Synoptic Tradition and Q. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  88. Müller, Mogens, and Omerzu, Keike. 2018. Gospel Interpretation and the Q-Hypothesis. New York: Bloomsbury.

  89. Neirynck, Frans, ed. 1974. The Minor Agreements of Matthew and Luke against Mark with a Cumulative List. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

    In collaboration with Theo Hansen and Frans van Segbroeck.

  90. ———. 1988. Q-Synopsis: The Double Tradition Passages in Greek. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

    In the order of Luke.

  91. ———, ed. 1991. The Minor Agreements in a Horizontal-Line Synopsis. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

  92. Neville, David J. 1994. Arguments from Order in Synoptic Source Criticism: A History and Critique. Macon: Mercer University Press.

  93. ———. 2002. Mark’s Gospel -- Prior or Posterior? A Reappraisal of the Phenomenon of Order. London: Sheffield Academic Press.

  94. New, David S. 1993. Old Testament Quotations in the Synoptic Gospels. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

  95. Nickle, Keith F. 2001. The Synoptic Gospels: An Introduction. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

  96. Orchard, Bernard, ed. 1982. A Synopsis of the Four Gospels in a New Translation. Arranged according to the Two-Gospel hypothesis and edited by John Berard Orchard. Macon: Merce University Press.

  97. ———, ed. 1983. A Synopsis of the Four Gospels in Greek. Arranged according to the Two-Gospel hypothesis and edited by John Berard Orchard. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.

  98. Orchard, Bernard, and Longstaff, Thomas R. W., eds. 1978. J. J. Griesbach: Synoptic and Text-Critical Studies, 1776-1976. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  99. Orchard, Bernard, and Riley, Harold. 1987. The Order of the Synoptics: Why Three Synoptic Gospels? Macon (GA): Mercer University Press.

  100. Orton, David E., ed. 1999. The Synoptic Problem and Q: Selected Studies from Novum Testamentum. Leiden: Brill.

  101. Peabody, David B., Cope, Lamar, and McNicol, Allan J., eds. 2002. One Gospel From Two: Mark's Use of Matthew and Luke. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International.

  102. Perkins, Pheme. 2007. Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids (MI) Eerdmans.

  103. Piper, Roland Allen, ed. 1995. The Gospel Behind the Gospels: Current Studies on Q. Leiden: Brill.

  104. Poirier, John C., and Peterson, Jeffrey, eds. 2015. Marcan Priority Without Q: Explorations in the Farrer Hypothesis. London: T & T Clark.

  105. Porter, Stanley E., and Dyer, Bryan R., eds. 2016. The Synoptic Problem: Four Views. Grand Rapids (MI): Baker Academic.

  106. Powers, B. Ward. 2010. The Progressive Publication of Matthew: An Explanation of the Writing of the Synoptic Gospels. Nashville: B & H Academic.

  107. ———. 2010. The Progressive Publication of Matthew: An Explanation of the Writing of the Synoptic Gospels. Nashville, TN: B&H Publishing Group.

  108. Ra, Yoseop. 2016. Q, the First Writing about Jesus. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock.

  109. Read-Heimerdinger, Jenny, and Rius-Camps, Josep, eds. 2014. A Gospel Synopsis of the Greek Text of Matthew, Mark and Luke: A Comparison of Codex Bezae and Codex Vaticanus. Leiden: Brill.

  110. Reicke, Bo. 1986. The Roots of the Synoptic Gospels. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

  111. Reid, Duncan Graham. 2016. Miracle Tradition, Rhetoric, and the Synoptic Problem. Leuven: Peeters.

  112. Rist, John M. 1978. On the Independence of Matthew and Mark. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  113. Robbins, C. Michael. 2007. The Testing of Jesus in Q. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

  114. Robinson, James M. 2005. The Sayings Gospel Q: Collected Essays. Leuven: Leuven University Press.

    Edited by Christoph Heil and Joseph Verheyden.

  115. Robinson, James M., Hoffmann, Paul, and Kloppenborg, John S., eds. 2000. The Critical Edition of Q. Leuven: Peeters.

    Synopsis including the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Mark and Thomas with English, German, and French Translations of Q and Thomas.

  116. ———, eds. 2001. The Sayings Gospel Q in Greek and English with parallelels from the Gospels of Mark and Thomas Leuven: Peeters.

  117. Rollston, Christopher A., ed. 2002. The Gospels According to Michael Goulder: A North American Response. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International.

  118. Sanday, William, ed. 1911. Studies in the Synoptic Problem by Members of The University Of Oxford Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  119. Sanders, Ed Parish. 1969. The Tendencies of the Synoptic Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  120. Sanders, Ed Parish, and Davies, Margaret, eds. 1989. Studying the Synoptic Gospels. London: SCM Press.

  121. Smith, David Oliver. 2011. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Paul: The Influence of the Epistles on the Synoptic Gospels. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock.

  122. Stein, Robert H. 1994. The Synoptic Problem: An Introduction. Grand Rapids (MI): Baker Book House.

    Second revised edition (first edition 1987).

  123. ———. 2001. Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation. Grand Rapids (MI): Baker Academic.

    Second revised edition.

  124. Stoldt, Hans-Herbert. 1980. History and Criticism of the Marcan Hypothesis. Macon (GA): Mercer University Press.

    Translated from the German Geschichte und Kritik der Markus-hypothese, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1977, and edited by Donald L. Niewyk; introduction by William R. Farmer.

  125. Strecker, Georg. 1993. Minor Agreements: Symposium Göttingen 1991. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

  126. Streeter, Burnett Hillman. 1924. The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins, Treating of the Manuscript Tradition, Sources, Autorship, and Dates. London: Macmillan.

  127. Strickland, Michael. 2014. The Evangelicals and the Synoptic Problem. Bern: Peter Lang.

  128. Taylor, Vincent. 1933. The Formation of the Gospel Tradition. Eight Lectures. London: Macmillan.

  129. Thomas, Robert L., ed. 2002. Three Views on the Origins of the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, (MI): Kregel.

  130. Throckmorton Jr., Burton H., ed. 1992. Gospel Parallels: A Comparison of the Synoptic Gospels. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers.

  131. Tiwald, Markus. 2015. Q in Context I: The Separation between the Just and the Unjust in Early Judaism and in the Sayings Source. Göttingen: V & R unipress.

  132. ———. 2015. Q in Context II: Q in Context II: Social Setting and Archaeological Background of the Sayings Source. Göttingen: V & R unipress.

  133. ———, ed. 2020. The Q Hypothesis Unveiled: Theological, Sociological, and Hermeneutical Issues behind the Sayings Source. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

  134. ———, ed. 2020. The Sayings Source: A Commentary on Q. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.

  135. Tuckett, Christopher M. 1979. "The Griesbach Hypothesis in the 19th Century." Journal for the Study of the New Testament no. 3:29-60.

    Reprinted in S. E. Porter, C. A. Evans (eds.), New Testament Interpretation and Methods: a Sheffield Reader, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997, pp. 15-43.

  136. ———. 1983. The Revival of the Griesbach Hypothesis: An Analysis and Appraisal Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  137. ———, ed. 1984. Synoptic Studies: The Ampleforth Conferences of 1982 and 1983. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

    Reprint New York: Bloomsbury 2014.

  138. ———. 1986. Nag Hammadi and the Gospel Tradition. Synoptic Tradition in the Nag Hammadi Library. Edinburgh: T & T Clark.

  139. Tuckett, Christopher M. . 1997. Q and the History of Early Christianity. Studies on Q. Peabody (MA): Hendrickson Publishers.

  140. Tuckett, Christopher M. 2011. "The Current State of the Synoptic Problem." In New Studies in the Synoptic Problem: Oxford Conference, April 2008. Essays in Honour of Christopher M. Tuckett, edited by Foster, Paul, Gregory, Andrew, Kloppenborg, John S. and Verheyden, Joseph, 9-50. Leuven: Peeters.

  141. ———. 2014. From the Sayings to the Gospels. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

  142. Uchida, Kazuhiko. 1981. The Study of the Synoptic Problem in the Twentieth Century: A Critical Assessment, Aberdeen University.

  143. Valantsis, Richard. 2005. The New Q: A Translation with Commentary. New York: T & T Clark.

  144. Vinzent, Markus. 2014. Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels. Leuven: Peeters.

  145. Wenham, John William. 1992. Redating Matthew, Mark & Luke: A Fresh Assault on the Synoptic Problem. Downers Grove (IL): InterVarsity Press.

  146. Williams, Matthew C. 2006. Two Gospels from One: A Comprehensive Text-critical Analysis of the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids (MI): Kregel.

  147. Wright, Arthur. 1890. The Composition of the Four Gospels: A critical inquiry. London: Macmillan and Co.