Bibliographia. Annotated Bibliographies (

by Raul Corazzon | e-mail:

Study Guide for Bibliographies of Philosophy and Manuals of Style

Contents of this section

General Bibliographies of Philosophy

  1. Guerry, Herbert. 1977. A Bibliography of Philosophical Bibliographies. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

    Contents: Acknowledgments VII; Introduction IX-XIII; I. Bibliographies of individual philosophers 1; II. Subect Bibliographies 179; Index 313-332.

    "The present work attempts to list philosophical Bibliographies published in all countries since about 1450, when printing was invented, through the year 1974. Non-specialists and undergraduates will find references to the standard bibliographical aids appropriate to their interests and courses. Advanced scholars are directed to the more specialized and abstruse Bibliographies. My aim has been to include only Bibliographies that have been published separately or appeared as contributions to journals, though I have included a few significant Bibliographies which were published as appendixes to monographs or as parts of larger Bibliographies. This restriction was necessary in order to make the task of compiling the Bibliography manageable. Bibliographies are always incomplete, and all subject Bibliographies are slightly out of date from the time of publication. The present volume is no exception. Like Mozart's Don Giovanni, I have tried to make my collection as extensive as possible, knowing all the while that true completeness is a daydream. Moreover, when I began my work, I had intended to describe each work cited. As the number of entries grew, it became clear, given my present circumstances, that the annotation of each item would be impossible. I therefore elected to write as many annotations as I could for the present edition and complete them in a subsequent larger work. The Bibliographies in this volume are divided into two alphabetically arranged lists, numbered consecutively. The first list (1-1395) contains Bibliographies on the works of, and literature about, individual philosophers. The second list (1396-2353) contains Bibliographies on philosophical topics. Bibliographies that cover more than one topic are cross-indexed; thus a Bibliography on the doctrine of Platonic ideas appears under the subject heading "Ideas (Platonic)," but is also referred to by number in the entries under the author heading 'Plato." Bibliographies of works on or within a school of philosophy bearing the name of an individual (for example, "Cartesianism," "Cartesians," "Marxism," "Marxism-Leninism") are listed among the Bibliographies on that individual (for example, under "Descartes, René," or "Marx, Karl").


    The definition of "philosophy" is complicated by the fact that much of what used to count as philosophy no longer does. The Bibliotheca Philosophica by Paulus Bolduanus in 1616 and the work of the same name by Burkhard GoIthelf Struve in 1804 contain much that we would not call philosophy today.

    Some of what Europeans in the last hundred years have called philosophy, Americans now term psychology or sociology or educational theory. Some of what has passed for philosophy in Britain and America in the last fifty years would not be recognized as such in other countries.

    The implication is that one must define "philosophy" broadly. The meanings of words change not only from time to time but also from place to place. Words are in some respects like natural species, neither being static. In some organisms that reproduce asexually (some bacteria, for example), the differentiation of one species from another is somewhat subjective. Similar problems arise in differentiating the more complex forms of life that reproduce sexually. The ability to cross usually is taken as the identity mark of species, yet there exist "distinct species" of plants and animals that cannot cross with one another, but can both cross with a third "species." Problems concerning the delimitation or specification of concepts are analogous.

    My criteria for the philosophical, therefore, have been rather broad. If a Bibliography covers a thinker or a topic that might be considered in a philosophy course or in a work on the history of philosophy, or if the bibliogr€@ê[aphy has been published in a journal that appears in any of the lists of philosophical journals, then I have tended to include it. Nevertheless, I have eliminated some Bibliographies that seemed to me to be purely in the field of religion, which comprises its own distinct area of scholarship. I have not restricted myself solely to Western philosophy. If Western thinkers preponderate here, it is because the materials available to me dealt almost exclusively with Western works and because non-Western patterns of scholarship have not produced much in the way of Bibliographies. If there is a disproportionately large number of Bibliographies on semi-philosophical figures and problems, this is a reflection of the work previously done by compilers of Bibliographies: the large number of people interested in belles-lettres, for example, insures that the number of Voltaire Bibliographies will be large; the zeal that so often accompanies faith in an idea (Christianity, Marxism, occultism) guarantees that the number of Bibliographies of works related to these faiths will be large.

    Four centuries ago Montaigne, lamenting an affliction endemic to scholarship, wrote: "There is more ado to interpret interpretations than to interpret the things, and more books upon books than upon all other subjects; we do nothing but comment upon one another."8 Nevertheless, I offer the reader not only another book about books, but in effect, a book about books about books. My purpose, of course, is to make the vast literature of philosophy more open to philosophers and students of philosophy, many of whom probably would write better in the end if they would read a little more and write a little less." (from the Introduction).

  2. Totok, Wilhelm, ed. 1964. Handbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie. Frankfurt: Klostermann.

    This work, conceived as a supplement to Friedrich Ueberweg' Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie (twelfth edition 1923-1928), is the most complete Bibliography on the history of philosophy for the publications from 1920 up to 1980, with an introduction listing works on the methodology of research in philosophy and on the general history of philosophy, dictionaries, introdutions and works on the philosophical disciplines; articles from over 400 periodicals are cited.

    Six volumes (1964-1990): 1. Altertum: indische, chinesische, griechisch-römische Philosophie; 2. Mittelalter; 3. Renaissance; 4. Frühe Neuzeit: 17. Jahrhundert; 5. Bibliographie 18. und 19. Jahrhundert; 6. Bibliographie 20. Jahrhundert.

    A second expanded and updated edition of the first volume was published in 1997.

  3. Bynagle, Hans Edward. 2006. Philosophy. A Guide to the Reference Literature. Westport: Libraries Unlimited.

    Third edition (first edition 1986; second edition 1997).

    Contents: Preface; Chapter 1: Introduction; Part I. General sources. Chapter 2: General Bibliographic and Research Guides; Chapter 3: Chapter 3: General Bibliographies; Chapter 4: General Indexes, Abstract and Review Sources, and Serial Bibliographies; Chapter 5: National and Regional Bibliographies and Indexes; Chapter 6: General Internet Resources and Gateways; Chapter 7: General Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and Handbooks; Part II. History of Philosophy. Chapter 8: Comprehensive History Sources; Chapter 9: Non-Western Philosophy; Chapter 10: Western Philosophy: General, National, and Regional; Chapter 11: Western Philosophy: Ancient; Chapter 12: Western Philosophy: Medieval and Renaissance; Chapter 13: Western Philosophy: Modern through Nineteenth Century; Chapter 14: Western Philosophy: Twentieth and Twenty-first Century; Part III. Branches of Philosophy. Chapter 15: Aesthetics, Philosophy of Art, and Art Criticism; Chapter 16: Epistemology, Metaphysics, and Philosophy of Mind; Chapter 17: Ethics; Chapter 18: Logic and the Philosophies of Mathematics, Science, and Social Sciences; Chapter 19: Philosophy of Education; Chapter 20: Philosophy of religion; Chapter 21; Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy; Chapter 22: Other Branches and Special Topics; Part IV. Miscellanea. Chapter 23: Sundry Currents, Schools, and Movements; Chapter 24: Directories and Miscellaneous Reference Sources; Appendix 1: Core Academic Titles; Appendix 2: Titles especially Suited for Public and School Libraries; Author Index; Title Index; Subject Index.

    "This guide to reference sources in philosophy has been compiled and written with a diversity of users in mind. It is intended for professional philosophers and teachers of philosophy; for students of philosophy at both undergraduate and graduate levels; for librarians, as an aid in reference service and collection development; and, to a lesser extent, for the general reader or inquirer who may come to philosophy with little of no background. Not everyone, needless to say, will be equally well served by every part of this guide, and that is undoubtedly true also of the work as a whole. Nonetheless, I have tried to keep all of these potential audiences in mind throughout, and have tried in particular to gear the level of information provided in the annotations to the audience(s) most likely to take an interest in them and to use and benefit from the work in question. That same principle applies to the introduction (ch. 1), which is addressed primarily to those without a close acquaintance with the field of philosophy, though readers who are not in that position may find parts of it helpful as well.

    The present guide succeeds two previous editions of Philosophy: A Guide to the Reference Literature, also published by Libraries Unlimited (1st ed., 1986, 2nd ed., 1997). The most radical departure from its predecessors is represented by its organization. It employs what is predominantly a subject arrangement classifying sources first of all in relation to the various divisions of philosophy and its history, in contrast to the primary arrangement by types of reference sources (Bibliographies, indexes, dictionaries and encyclopedias, etc.) employed previously." (from the Preface).

  4. Follon, Jacques. 1993. Guide bibliographique des études de philosophie. Paris: Vrin.

    From the English Preface: "In the course of their studies, most students of philosophy at university or even in secondary education will sooner or later be called upon to produce a piece of original work. Whether this be an M.A. thesis, a doctoral dissertation, or simply a paper to be presented in some course, seminar or exam, such work always requires active research. However, faced with this requirement, many find themselves completely disheartened by the scope and complexity of the task. There are as well many young teachers of philosophy who experience serious difficulties in compiling the material necessary to prepare their lectures, which are meant to introduce to the discipline which they themselves are teaching. It is precisely to these two categories of "apprentice philosophers" that the present work is addressed: not, of course, in order to teach them the art of composition or pedagogics (in these two fields, innumerable and excellent manuals already exist), but rather to furnish them with a choice of bibliographical references which should prove useful in carrying out philosophical research or in preparing a course in philosophy. With this end in mind, the present short work does not whatsoever pretend to be exhaustive. On the contrary: instead of overwhelming the reader with a mass of information that might easily have discouraged him (or her), I have simply had the intention to provide an accessible guide, which points out the most important and most interesting tools for research or for the preparation of a course. There are a number of previous publications some aspects of which have served as a model for my own project; above all, I must mention the book by L. De Raeymaeker, Introduction à la philosophie, 6th ed., Louvain, Publications universitaires, 1967, especially pages 231 to 304 ("Renseignements bibliographiques"); but also R. T. De George, A Guide to Philosophical Bibliography and Research, New York, Meredith, 1971; and H. J. Koren, Research in Philosophy. A Bibliographical Introduction to Philosophy and a few Suggestions for Dissertations, Pittsburgh (Pa.), Duquesne University Press, 1966; and finally, the unpublished lecture notes of the late Canon C. Wenin, who used to teach the "Introduction to philosophy" course at the Institut Supérieur de Philosophie at Louvain-la-Neuve. For the updating of bibliographical data, I have extensively drawn on the appendix to vol. I (L'univers philosophique) of the Encyclopédie philosophique universelle, edited under the direction of A. Jacob, Paris, P.U.F., 1989 (pp. 1741-1908)."

  5. Gerber, William, and Farmer, Michael J. 2006. "Bibliographies." In Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Second Edition. Volume 10, edited by Borchert, Donald M., 67-177. New York: Thomson Gale.

    "The First Edition of the Encyclopedia of Philosophy included bibliographical essays dealing with philosophy dictionaries and encyclopedias, philosophy journals, and philosophy Bibliographies. To preserve and enhance these essays, they have been reproduced in this Second Edition along with detailed updates. The updates to the Bibliographies cover material published between 1965 and mid-2005. All of the references appear in OCLC's WorldCat bibliographic database and are thus available either in mid- to large-size academic libraries, or through interlibrary loan. While the Bibliographies are extensive, they are not exhaustive. This is especially true in the case of the journal Bibliography, where less readily available non-English-language journals have been excluded, as have journals published for short periods of time. Accessibility was deemed to be more important than exhaustive coverage. The subject coverage includes both general philosophical works and works from the major sub-domains of philosophy. The bibliographic lists show that philosophy is a vital, worldwide discipline.

    A perusal of the journal Bibliography will show that new journals are appearing every year, and the dictionary and encyclopedia Bibliography identifies publications in fifty different languages. The constant stream of new journals and the accumulation of philosophical resources in so many languages are indicators of a truly vibrant discipline."

    W. Gerber is the author of the articles in the First Edition (1967); the updates in the Second Edition (2005) are by M. J. Farmer.

  6. The Philosopher's Index. An International Index to Philosophical Periodicals. 1940.

    "The Philosopher's Index is the world's most current and comprehensive Bibliography of scholarly research in philosophy, serving the philosophical community worldwide. Today, The Index contains more than 450,000 records drawn from over 680 journals, originating from more than 50 countries. The literature coverage dates back to 1940 and includes print and electronic journals, books, anthologies, contributions to anthologies, and book reviews. Covering scholarly research in all major areas of philosophy, The Index features informative, author-written abstracts. The extensive indexing, which includes proper names along with subject terms, enhances the search capability. The Philosopher's Index is owned and published by the Philosopher's Information Center."

  7. Bibliographie de la Philosophie / Bibliography of Philosophy. 1954. Paris: Vrin.

    "The present publication is not only international in scope but also polylingual, providing abstracts in the language of origin for books in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish, and in either English or French for books in other languages. In a typical year, well over a thousand books are covered in the Bibliographie. The signed abstracts are intended to be factual and not critical. They vary in length from a few to sometimes more than 30 lines. Entries and abstracts are contributed via "centers of philosophical Bibliography" in over 50 countries represented in the Institut International de Philosophie, the Paris-based organization responsible for the Bibliographie and one of several international bodies (UNESCO is another) associated with its publication.

    The Bibliographie employs a systematic arrangement with 10 broad and rather standard divisions (philosophy in general; logic and philosophy of science; ethics and values; etc.). Indexes are not provided in each quarterly issue -- only cumulated annual indexes in the final issue of each volume. One index formerly combined authors, titles, and title catchwords, but has been reduced since volume 34 (1987) to just an author index, except for anonymous works or others listed by title only. A second, labeled "Index of Names," combines publishers, translators, authors of prefaces, and individuals mentioned in titles or in abstracts. Volume 41 (1994) brought the addition of a subject index, divided into three distinct parts: (I) periods; (2) doctrines, disciplines, and trends of thought; and (3) concepts and categories.

    A Glossaire / Glossary, published as a supplement in 1995, lists translation equivalents for frequently occurring terms and expressions across the five languages used in the Bibliographie." (from H. E. Bynagle - A Guide to the Reference Literature, pp. 33-34).

  8. Répertoire bibliographique de la philosophie / International Philosophical Bibliography. 1991. Louvain: Institut supérieuer de Philosophie.

    From the Introduction: "The aim of the Bibliography is to list philosophical literature as such; the adjective is understood rather strictly, with the result that scientific disciplines which are related to philosophy, and even the auxiliary sciences of philosophy, are not treated of in their own right; the increasing volume of this literature, plus the availability of specialized bibliographical guides to it, preclude the possibility of incorporating it into the Bibliography. Only publications relating to the methods or the philosophy of the sciences, together with publications of a general nature relative to the objects treated of by these disciplines, are referred to. This rule applies particularly to the following disciplines: symbolic logic, linguistics, psychology, aesthetics and theology.

    In principle, the Bibliography is confined to philosophical literature published in the following languages: Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish and Catalan. The published works in other languages are only indicated in the cases where they are accompanied by a summary in one of the languages mentioned above."

  9. Philosophie. Liste mondiale des périodiques spécialisés / Philosophy. World list of specialized periodicals. 1967. Paris: Mouton.

    A bilingual (French and English) work that lists philosophical periodicals by country and indexes them by subject, by publishing bodies, and by titles.

    "One of the main tasks of the Service for the Exchange of Scientific Information of the Maison des Sciences de l'Homme is to describe for researchers the most useful tools of documentation in their different fields.

    It is obvious that amongst these tools scientific periodicals occupy an important place. Articles, more often than books, keep up to date with research trends and provide information on the current scientific scene. Although the periodicals containing these articles are a relatively adaptable and rapid means of providing information, they are often difficult to trace. This is mostly due to their vast and ever-increasing number; also to a confusing duplication of titles, uncertainties about which periodicals are connected to which others, irregular intervals of publication, sudden disappearances and reappearances of titles -- in short, to the particularly unstable existence of these periodicals.

    In 1964, in order to introduce a little clarity into this apparent disorder, and thus facilitate specialised research, the Service for the Exchange of Scientific Information drew up for the International Committee for Social Sciences Documentation the third edition of the World List of Social Science Periodicals, published by UNESCO in 1966. The present list provides an inventory of the principal periodicals in the field of philosophy and though complete in itself, is a continuation of the first list. Soon lists of periodicals in other subjects will appear: psychology, linguistics, African studies.

    The SELECTION of periodicals has been made according to the criteria already established for social science journals. Only periodicals of a scientific character have been listed, i.e. those publishing original studies and articles by university or other specialists. This implies, a priori, the exclusion of all publications whose contents consist of translations, reprints or unsigned articles, and of doctrinal or propagandist periodicals designed to publicise or disseminate an ideology - of whatever kind - rather than to advance knowledge.

    In the specialised branches of the subject it is difficult to know where to draw the line, as the distinction between philosophy in the strict sense of the word, and the history of ideas or some ideological si and is not always clear. On the whole we have attempted to distinguish between periodicals devoted to philosophical research and those whose principal purpose is to propagate a specific ideology. We have, however, taken it into account that in some countries this latter category also prints pure philosophical studies, and in these cases the titles have been included in the list." (from the Preface).

  10. Hogrebre, Wolfram, Konig, Gert, and Kamp, Rudolf. 1972. Periodica philosophica. Eine internationale Bibliographie philosophischer Zeitschriften von den Anfangen bis zur Gegenwart. Düsseldorf: Philosophia Verlag.

    "This is an international listing of some 5,000 journals, both extant and defunct, in the field of philosophy broadly defined (broadly enough to include borderline journals in religion, psychology, general humanistic studies, etc.). Data provided typically include country and dates of publication, first and (if applicable) last issue numbers, sponsoring organization(s), and previous and subsequent titles. A special section, labeled Kettenregister ("chain index"), diagrams complex series of title changes, splits, mergers, and so forth. There is also a classified subject index and a country index." (from H. E. Bynagle - A Guide to the Reference Literature, p. 28).

  11. Ruben, Douglas H. 1985. Philosophy Journals and Serials: An Analytical Guide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood.

    "Traditionally, philosophy comprises five general fields of study: logic, aesthetics, ethics, politics, and metaphysics. In all five fields is represented the continuum from historical to modern contemporary evolutions in philosophical criticism. This book surveys mainly the twentieth-century evolutions of philosophy in an analytic review of English-language serials published all over the world. (...) The Bibliography of 335 entries that follows includes newsletters, bulletins, and serials. Three basic criteria determined their selection. First, did the serial have a regular frequency of publication? Irregularity of distribution poses a problem because readers want a continuous flow of information. Second, did the serial contain articles, summaries, reviews, or some section in the English-language? Publications in Poland, France, Italy, and Israel, for instance, may circulate to English-speaking subscribers without ever or only rarely printing English articles or translations. But these were excluded from the survey. Finally, did the serial serve as a critical forum for discussion within the five traditional field of philosophy? Ideally, the content of journals determines the appropriate field. But in practice even the most specialized journal in, say, aesthetics, may accept articles outside of the field proper, thereby creating an overlap. One alternative to reduce overlap was to expand beyond the five sub-fields to the following list: aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, morality, philosophy of religion, metaphysics (cosmology), philosophy of anthropology, philosophy of education, philosophy of history, philosophy of politics (law), philosophy of social sciences, semantics (language), logic, and general issues. Further divisions of philosophy covered in the journals may be found through the Subject Index." (from the Preface).

  12. Plott, John C., and Mays, Paul D. 1969. Sarva-Darsana-Sangraha. A Bibliographical Guide to the Global History of Philosophy. Leiden: Brill.

    "The purpose of this Bibliography and its annotations can be stated in a very few but powerful words: To make some contribution to the development of WORLD COMMUNITY by facilitating the study of, or at least introduction to, the major philosophers in World History (or global or globalizing history, if one prefers that new terminology); and to so arrange them in historical order that this Bibliography will make possible in American Philosophy Departments the teaching of the Global History of Philosophy instead of, or in addition to, the present courses in the History of (only) Western Philosophy.

    Heretofore most of the Materials covered in this survey have been dealt with primarily by those working in the field of "Comparative" Philosophy, or in the "Asia Studies" field, or the "East-West" nexus. This has been necessary for a preparation for what is yet to be realized, but it is not sufficient. It is hoped that the historical approach to the field will vindicate itself from the Materials here presented.


    As to mechanics of the apparatus, the following remarks are in order: Cross-references have been kept to a basic minimum, although some will be found, where that has been considered necessary. Needless to say, very few books indeed fit into one single category or even, for that matter, into any single system of classification. In an historical survey in particular, the 'lines' between Intellectual or Cultural History and the (global) History of Philosophy very often become blurred or -- to use another metaphor - sometimes the 'lines' even get crossed and even tangled up, so that one very often gets the wrong number, no matter how many times he dials! Oversights and underestimations, of course, are almost unavoid able in constituting what is virtually a New Field. Estimations of importance are necessary in order to give coherency, even though of course, others of many camps, and often for diametrically opposed reasons, will disagree. It seems that among philosophers even more than in matters political, you can please some of the people some of the time ... but to please all of the people all the time - not even God seems able to do that!

    The single starred (•) entries are those considered as most essential for the continuation of the basic themes or else those which commend themselves for some particular reason or other usually mentioned in the Annotation.

    Those double starred (**) are the "sine qua non" books, or books otherwise recommended for special attention. In a few cases, publishers or dates are not listed. In almost all of these, it is because references thus far available have been incomplete, or because of private printings or customs differing from modern western custom in matters of publication." (pp. XI and XV).

  13. Risse, Wilhelm. 1998. Bibliographia Philosophica Vetus. Repertorium generale systematicum operum philosophicorum usque ad annum MDCCC typis impressorum. Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

    "In something of a tour de force, Risse has compiled a comprehensive short-title Bibliography that attempts to include all independently published works of Western philosophy from the invention of printing, ca. 1455, up to 1800, in (he carefully qualifies) all Western languages accessible to him. This includes not only works of philosophers who lived and wrote within the specified timeframe, but also editions of philosophers from the ancient, medieval, and early Renaissance periods. They amount to an estimated 76,400 titles. These are divided over eight volumes of varying length, defined by a combination of subject-field and genre categories (...)

    Parts 1-7 are uniformly arranged chronologically by year of publication, within each year alphabeticalfy by author. Each part includes an author index, index of titles of anonymous works, index of authors who are the subjects of others' commentaries, and a topical index. Part 8, which lists printed academic theses in volumes 1-2, is arranged alphabetically by author of the originaf thesis (disputatio), regardless of publication year.

    Under each thesis entry it lists, where applicable, published responses to it by other writers. The latter are also indexed in volume 3 of Part 8 with references hack to the relevant entries in volumes 1 and 2.

    The ninth volume, titled Syllabus auctorum, contains a complete author index, with birth and death dates, places of birth and activity, and profession (as available); a concordance of Latin and vernacular place names; and a short list of abbreviations of monastic orders.

    For nearly every entry in this Bibliography Risse provides, besides the customary bibliographic data, one or more location codes for holding libraries where exemplars are available. These included numerical codes for major German research libraries, alphabetical codes for some 350 additional libraries in Europe and America. As Risse notes, many of the works listed are rare, and some were found only in "smaller" libraries (preface). Those he has personally inspected are marked by an asterisk."

    From: Hans E. Bynagle - Philosophy. A guide to the reference literature. Third edition - Westport, Libraries Unlimited, 2006, pp. 127-128.

  14. Redmond, Walter Bernard. 1972. Bibliography of the Philosophy in the Iberian Colonies of America. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.


    The first part of this Bibliography is a catalogue of philosophical writings from colonial Latin America which, on the basis of the secondary literature, are presumed to be extant. It is followed by a short appendix listing some colonial authors whose philosophical works are lost, but which perhaps still exist. The second part of the Bibliography contains the secondary literature: studies on the philosophy of colonial Latin America as well as subsequently published texts and translations of the works of the colonial authors. It also contains non-philosophical works to which reference is made in the first section. A brief digest of the content of each philosophical work follows the entry.


    The colonial material belongs to two philosophical currents which are discernible in the period: "pure" scholasticism, an extension of the Iberian scholastic renaissance of the 16th century and lasting well into the 19th century, and "modern" scholasticism, which was influenced by the newer ideas from Europe and usually attempted to reconcile them to the traditional philosophy. This modern scholasticism, already present in the 17th century, becomes a strong force in the second half of the 18th century. Both the "pure" and the "modern" scholasticism tend to be supplemented after 1810 by non-scholastic philosophies. Hence works written after this date have generally not been registered in this Bibliography, except for a few important works continuing the modern scholastic tendency.

    Most of the primary documents are the traditional philosophy (and theology) cursus (classroom treatises on logic, physics, psychology, metaphysics, ethics, and the various theology courses) and conclusions (or theses, asserta, etc.; lists of opinions defended in scholastic functions), but some other material has also been included (articles in periodicals, "study plans", etc.)." (p. VIII).

Bibliographies on Women Philosophers

  1. Barth, Else M. 1992. Women Philosophers. A Bibliography of Books through 1990. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University.

    "Philosophical books written or edited by women are included whatever their subject matter or point of view. Judgments of quality, too, do not come into play, and the only bounds are certain limitations of language and geography dictated by practical considerations: Eastern Europe and non-English-speaking countries outside Europe are not covered. Doctoral dissertations, even those not published. are included "wherever possible" (p. 3), that is, if the information was somewhat readily available. More than 2,800 items are listed, and more than 1,900 names appear in the author index. Entries are not annotated." (from H. E. Bynagle, A Guide to the Reference Literature, p. 31).

  2. Hutchings, Noël, and Rumsey, William D., eds. 1997. Collaborative Bibliography of Women in Philosophy. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University.

    "Lists and often annotates more than 11.000 philosophical works produced by more than 3,500 women, from the pre-Socratics to near the close of the twentieth century. It is not restricted to "philosophers" in a narrow sense, including for instance such figures as Theosophist Helena Blavatzky and writer Virginia Woolf. The "collaborative" description incorporated in the title reflects the fact that this print volume derived from an online Bibliography that invited contributions, corrections, and suggestions from anyone-and provided a mechanism for submitting them-while maintaining editorial control to assure acceptable levels of authenticity and scholarly quality. Lamentably, this online project, known as Noema: Collaborative Bibliography of Women in Philosophy despite holding up an intriguing model for the future of Web-based Bibliography, went off-line in July 2003. With it have vanished, at least for now, additions entered subsequent to this print version, which even by mid-2001 (my latest figures) had expanded the Bibliography to more than 16,000 records representing over 5,000 women.

    Entries are arranged alphabetically by authors' last names. Books and (occasionally) works in nonprint media are listed first, then articles, as applicable, by date of publication within each category. There is an index of named persons and subjects. Topical entries in this index tend to be overly broad: an article on adultery, for instance, can't be found under that subject entry (there isn't one) or even under "sex, philosophy of," but only under "ethics, applied." As for indexed names, their most distinctly valuable aspect would seem to be the references to women philosophers writing about other women philosophers. These render this in some measure a secondary Bibliography on women philosophers, though not in a full-fledged sense: a work about a woman philosopher written by a male would find no place here." (from H. E. Bynagle - A Guide to the Reference Literature, pp. 31-32).

Bibliographies on the History and Historiography of Philosophy

  1. Schneider, Ulrich Johannes. 1992. "A Bibliography of Nineteenth-Century Histories of Philosophy in German, English, and French (1810-1899)." Storia della Storiografia no. 21:141-169.

    Revised reprint in: U. J. Schneider, Philosophie und Universität. Historisierung der Vernunft im 19. Jahrhundert, Hamburg, Felix Meiner, 2000, pp. 317-355.

    "Until the eighteenth century, the history of philosophy, understood as the 'lives and opinions' of philosophers, was mainly the work of scholars; Johann Jakob Brucker's Historia critica philosophiae in 1766-1767, when it was printed for the last time in six enormous quarto volumes, is an example of this kind of work (2). At the end of the eighteenth century, a new generation of historians (mainly German) transformed the scholarly tradition by making it the place for a general problematization of philosophical thought, past and present; in addition, they presented the history of philosophy as a narrative. The first document of this new historical interest in philosophy's past is the Geschichte der Philosophie by Wilhelm Gottlieb Tennemann, which appeared in eleven volumes between 1798 and 1819 (3). Ever since, this historical interest has remained very productive, and the nineteenth century already witnessed a rapid increase in books on the history of philosophy.

    The following Bibliography documents this increase in the number of books presenting and (re)presenting the historical knowledge about philosophy. Their sheer number is astonishing and makes it almost impossible to highlight individual historians, as one can for earlier centuries (4). In the nineteenth century, this interest in the history of philosophy evidently became more general. There are reasons other than literary or intellectual ones which may explain this increase in the number of works similar in title and in form. Most of the authors of these histories of philosophy were school or university teachers of philosophy, that is to say pedagogical mediators of philosophical knowledge, including the historical knowledge of philosophy.

    The Bibliography presented here is not, and cannot be, complete. Apart from all the usual bibliographical uncertainties, the very category of the history of philosophy resists precise definition. All the titles listed make the history of philosophy the subject of a narrative. The variations are nonetheless considerable. Some of the books are of several hundred pages, some of less than one hundred. The inclusion of small books is undoubtedly problematic. There are other works which do not make the history of philosophy their explicit subject (and which therefore are not listed here), which nevertheless treat it at greater length than some of those included. With regard to the manifold forms of historiographical work within the area of philosophy, the following list shows not much more than the tip of the iceberg.

    The Bibliography presented here should serve as a basis for further investigation, into the ways of making past events present, the practice of reading old texts and the technique of presenting historical knowledge about philosophy. As in previous centuries, nineteenth-century historical work on philosophy was not autonomous; in ways which have not been sufficiently recognized, it fulfilled pedagogical and institutional needs, and complied with numerous interests which have not yet been analyzed; it dealt with issues which the quantity of titles proves to be urgent, but which are still far from being understood." (pp. 141-142)

    (2) Brucker is made an essential figure in Lucien Braun's history of the history of philosophy -- the only complete history of its kind (from the beginnings up to Hegel); cfr. L. Braun, Histoire de l'histoire de la philosophie (Paris, 1974; German transl. Geschichte der Philosophiegeschichte, Darmstadt, 1990).

    (3) Tennemann's work is central in my essay on the origins of the modem, narrative historiography of philosophy; cfr. U. J. Schneider, Die Vergangenheit des Geistes. Eine Archäologie der Philosophiegeschichte (Frankfurt am Main, 1990).

    (4) Giovanni Santinello has established an Italian research group offering interpretations of modem European philosophy historians and their work; cfr. Storia delle storie generali della filosofia, ed. G. Santinello (Brescia, 1979 sqq.). Already published vol. I, Dalle origini rinascimentali alla historia philosophica (Brescia, 1981); vol. II, Dall'età cartesiana a Brucker (Brescia, 1979); vol. III (in two parts). Il secondo illuminismo e l'età kantiana (Padova, 1988). Still to come vol. IV, L'età hegeliana and vol. V. Il secondo Ottocento [the two last volumes was published in 1995-2004 (Vol. IV, in two parts) and in 2005].

Style Manuals and Student Guides

General Manual of Style:

  1. The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors and Publishers. 2010. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Sixteeenth edition.

    "This, the sixteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, marks the first edition to be prepared and published simultaneously in print and online. As opportunities for publishing have grown dramatically in an era of electronic publication and distribution, the guiding principles for this edition have been twofold: to recognize the continuing evolution in the way authors, editors, and publishers do their work, on the one hand, and to maintain a focus on those aspects of the process that are independent of the medium of publication, on the other.


    This edition marks an evolution of more than forty years, starting with the landmark twelfth edition, published in 1969. As part of this evolution, and as with the fifteenth edition, Chicago consulted a broad range of scholars and professionals in the fields of publishing and academics throughout the revision process. We also continued to benefit from the many helpful comments and suggestions sent to us by our readers, many of whom come from fields outside of scholarly publishing. Their input, in particular, helped us to keep in mind those principles of writing and editing that remain true regardless of the medium or field of publication." (From the Preface).

  2. Turabian, Kate L. 2007. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Seventh edition.

    "For this seventh edition, Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams have expanded the focus of the book. The new part 1, "Research and Writing: From Planning to Production," is adapted from their Craft of Research (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003). This part offers a step-by-step guide to the process of research and its reporting, a topic not previously covered in this manual but inseparable from source citation, writing style, and the mechanics of paper preparation. Among the topics covered are the nature of research, finding and engaging sources, taking notes, developing an argument, drafting and revising, and presenting evidence in tables and figures. Also included is a discussion of presenting research in alternative forums. In this part, the authors write in a familiar, collegial voice to engage readers in a complex topic. Students undertaking research projects at all levels will benefit from reading this part, though advanced researchers may wish to skim chapters 1-4.

    The rest of the book covers the same topics as past editions, but has been extensively revised to follow the recommendations in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (2003), to incorporate current technology as it affects all aspects of student writing, to provide updated examples, and to be easier to read and use." (from the Preface).

  3. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 2009. New York: Modern Language Association of America.

    Seventh edition.

    "The seventh edition of the MLA Handbook is accompanied for the first time by a Web-based component that helps users learn MLA style and understand better the activities of researching and writing a paper. Students, instructors, and librarians have shown great interest in gaining access to the MLA Handbook on the Web, and we responded by developing a site that contains the full text of the book with complementary materials. The site includes sample papers with step-by-step narratives showing how the papers were prepared, and each narrative can be explored from a number of perspectives. For example, if you are having trouble defining a topic. you can look at the ways the authors of the sample papers did it. If you are unsure how to evaluate sources for inclusion in your project, you can follow the steps outlined in the narratives. We hope that the new electronic component will help students in every stage of their work. Scholarly research is increasingly conducted in a digital environment, and we are pleased to usher the MLA Handbook into that world." (from the Foreword).

  4. Booth, Wayne C., Colomb, Gregory G., and Williams, Joseph M. 2008. The Craft of Research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Third edition (First edition 1995).

    "The aim of the third edition of The Craft of Research is the same as the first two: to meet the needs of all researchers, not just first-year undergraduates and advanced graduate students, but even those in business and government who do and report research on any topic, academic, political, or commercial. We wrote it to

    * guide you through the complexities of turning a topic or question into a research problem whose significance matches the effort that you put into solving it

    * help you organize and draft a report that justifies the effort

    * show you how to read your report as your readers will so that you can revise it into one that they will read with the understanding and respect it deserves

    Other handbooks touch on these matters, but this one, we think, is different. Most current guides acknowledge that researchers rarely move in a straight line from finding a topic to stating a thesis to filling in note cards to drafting and revision. Experienced researchers loop back and forth, move forward a step or two before going back in order to move ahead again, change directions, all the while anticipating stages not yet begun. But so far as we know, no other guide tries to explain how each part of the process influences all the others -- how asking questions about a topic prepares the researcher for drafting, how drafting can reveal problems in an argument, how writing an introduction can send you back to a search for more sources." (from the Preface).

  5. Harvey, Gordon. 2008. Writing with Sources. A Guide for Harvard Students. Indianapolis: Hackett.

    Second revised edition (First edition 1998).

    "Acknowledging your sources is therefore at once an obligation, a service, and an advantage. With a primary source (like the ant statistics), although you go on to give your own interpretation of its data, you're obliged first to tell your reader in a citation exactly what data you are interpreting, who assembled it, and where to find it -- so they can gauge, as you have done, its reliability. But your citation also alerts others who may want to use the data; and by allowing others to test and verify your conclusions, it enhances your credibility. Likewise with a secondary source (...), you're obliged to credit other people for work they have done and you have built upon; it's dishonest and ungenerous not to credit them. But citing the secondary source also alerts other readers to its existence, and has distinct advantages for you. Where you accept and build upon an idea, citing saves you from having to demonstrate the truth of the idea all over again, and it enlists the source's authority on your behalf. Where you instead challenge or qualify an idea, citing its source makes your argument interesting as a challenge or qualification to a published position.

    In both cases, careful citing suggests to your reader that you are a trustworthy analyst, strong enough in your own reading and thinking to acknowledge other opinions in your pursuit of the truth. The fear some students have, initially, that citations will make their paper appear less thoughtful could not be less warranted.

    Although procedures for using and citing sources differ some what from discipline to discipline, and the best authority for questions about using sources in a particular course is always its instructor, there is considerable common ground among the disciplines. This book summarizes that common ground. It describes the main methods of integrating sources into your paper and for citing them, the basic standards for acknowledging them, and the ways in which they are most commonly misused-along with some steps you can take to avoid misuses in your own writing." (from the Introduction).

  6. Lipson, Charles. 2006. Cite Right. A Quick Guide to Citation Styles - MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and more. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Second revised edition May 2011.

    "There are three reasons to cite the materials you use:

    * To give credit to others' work and ideas, whether you agree with them or not. When you use their words, you must give them credit by using both quotation marks and citations.

    * To show readers the materials on which you base your analysis, your narrative, or your conclusions.

    * To guide readers to the materials you have used so they can examine it for themselves. Their interest might be to confirm your work, to challenge it, or simply to explore it further.

    Taken together, these citations fully disclose your sources. That's important for academic integrity in several ways.

    First, good citations parcel out credit. Some belongs to you for the original work you did; you need to take full responsibility for it. Some belongs to others for their words, ideas, data, drawings, or other work. You need to acknowledge it, openly and explicitly.

    Second, if you relied on others' work in order to tell your story, explain your topic, or document your conclusions, you need to say exactly what you used. Take a simple paper about World War I. No one writing today learned about it firsthand. What we know, we learned by reading books and articles, by examining original documents and news reports, by listening to oral histories, by reviewing data compiled by military historians, and perhaps by viewing photographs or movies. When we write about the war, then, we should say how we acquired our information. The only exception is "commonly known information," something that everyone in the field clearly understands and that does not require any substantiation.(1) There's no need for a footnote to prove Woodrow Wilson was actually president of the United States. But if you referred to his speech declaring war, you would need a proper citation. If you used his words, you'd need quotation marks, too.

    Third, your readers may want to pursue a particular issue you cover. Citations should lead them to the right sources, whether those are books, interviews, archival documents, Web sites, poems, or paintings. That guidance serves several purposes. Skeptical readers may doubt the basis for your work or your conclusions. Others may simply want to double-check them or do more research on the topic. Your citations should point the way.

    What citations should not do is prance about, showing off your howl-edge without adding to the reader's. That's just bragging.

    Beyond this question of style (and good manners), there is the basic issue of honesty. Citations should never mislead your readers. There are lots of ways to mislead or misdirect your readers; accurate citations avoid them. For example, they should not imply you read books or articles when you really didn't. They should not imply you spent days in the archives deciphering original documents when you actually read them in an edited book or, worse, when you "borrowed" the citation from a scholar who did study the originals. Of course, it's fine to cite that author or an edited collection. That's accurate. It's fine to burrow into the archives and read the original yourself. It's dishonest, though, to write citations that only pretend you did.

    Good citations should reveal your sources, not conceal them. They should honestly show the research you conducted. That means they should give credit where credit is due, disclose the materials on which you base your work, and guide readers to that material so they can explore it further. Citations like these accurately reflect your work and that of others. They show the ground on which you stand." (Chapter 1).

    (1). What counts as common knowledge depends on your audience.

  7. Spatt, Brenda. 2011. Writing from Sources. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

    Eighth Edition (First edition 2003).

    "The big news about the sixth edition of Writing from Sources is its intensive focus on the Internet. For many students, the Web now serves as more than just an effective means of gaining and distributing information-it has become a way of life, a source of instant knowledge, a shortcut to research. Unfortunately, the Web is at once the friend and the enemy of serious research. As instructors increasingly realize, in comparison with print sources Web material remains unreliable, its quality often abysmal. Whether or not you use a trustworthy search engine or consult a respected database, you are likely to encounter far more dross than gold. And too often our students, seduced by the abundance of online sources and the speed of surfing, lack the knowledge to make the crucial distinctions between a good Web site, a bad one, and one that falls somewhere in between." (p. V)


    Here is a summary of the changes in and additions to the sixth edition of Writing from Sources that enhance its usefulness as a text, a reader, an exercise book, and a research-essay guide:

    An entirely new guide to locating print and Web sources using databases, directories, and search engines

    A revised and expanded guide to evaluating print and Web sources, explaining-with copious illustrations-how to avoid the pitfalls inherent in Web research

    · A realistic methodology for using computers to take notes from sources and organize them on the screen

    A new sample research essay using endnotes in Chapter 9, incorporating a fairly sophisticated level of documentation in exploring the topic of cannibalism from a historical and anthropological perspective

    A revised selection of reference sources, emphasizing electronic databases across the disciplines, contained in Appendix A

    Expanded and updated guidelines for documenting sources in MLA and APA styles, contained in Appendix B

    An entirely new casebook of readings on "Genetic Engineering and Cloning," contained in Appendix E, that can provide the basis for a complete research essay or, alternatively, can be supplemented by student research

    A new model for synthesizing sources, in Chapter 4, built around the topic of promotion in elementary school." (from To the Instructor VI-VII).

  8. Blanshard, Brand. 2004. On Philosophical Style. South Bend: St. Augustine Press.

    Original edition: Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1954.

    "The more perfectly one's style fits the inner man and reveals its strength and effect, the clearer it becomes that the problem of style is not a problem of word and sentences merely, but of being the right kind of mind. "He who would not be frustrated in his hope to write well in laudable things," said Milton, "ought himself to be a true poem." Does that make the problem of style insoluble? Yes, I am afraid it does. But it shows also that the problem we have been discussing is no petty or merely technical one, but very far-reaching indeed. We may have to agree with Professor Raleigh that "to write perfect prose is neither more nor less difficult than to lead a perfect life." (Conclusion).

  9. Baggini, Julian, and Fosl, Peter S. 2010. The Philosopher's Toolkit. A Compendium of Philosophical Concepts and Methods. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Second revised edition (First edition 2003).

    "Philosophy can be an extremely technical and complex affair, one whose terminology and procedures are often intimidating to the beginner and demanding even for the professional. Like that of surgery, the art of philosophy requires mastering a body of knowledge, but it also requires acquiring precision and skill with a set of instruments or tools. The Philosopher's Toolkit may be thought of as a collection of just such tools. Unlike those of a surgeon or a master woodworker, however, the instruments presented by this text are conceptual - tools that can be used to analyse, manipulate and evaluate philosophical concepts, arguments and theories.

    The Toolkit can be used in a variety of ways. It can be read cover to cover by those looking for instruction on the essentials of philosophical reflection. It can be used as a course book on basic philosophical method or critical thinking. It can also be used as a reference book to which general readers and more advanced philosophers can turn in order to find quick and clear accounts of the key concepts and methods of philosophy. The aim of the book, in other words, is to act as a conceptual toolbox from which all those from neophytes to master artisans can draw instruments that would otherwise be distributed over a diverse set of texts and require long periods of study to acquire.

    For this second edition, we have expanded the book from six to seven sections, and reviewed and revised every single entry. These sections progress from the basic tools of argumentation to sophisticated philosophical concepts and principles. The text passes through instruments for assessing arguments to essential laws, principles and conceptual distinctions. It concludes with a discussion of the limits of philosophical thinking.

    Each of the seven sections contains a number of compact entries comprising an explanation of the tool it addresses, examples of the tool in use and guidance about the tool's scope and limits. Each entry is cross-referenced to other related entries. Suggestions for further reading are included, and those particularly suitable for novices are marked with an asterisk. There is also a list of Internet resources at the back of the book.

    Becoming a master sculptor requires more than the ability to pick up and use the tools of the trade: it requires flair, talent, imagination and practice. In the same way, leaning how to use these philosophical tools will not turn you into a master of the art of philosophy overnight. What it will do is equip you with many skills and techniques that will help you philosophize better." (Preface).

  10. Martinich, Aloysius. 2005. Philosophical Writing. An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

    Third edition (First edition 1989; Second edition 1996).

    Contents: Notes to the Second Edition. Introduction. Part I: Author and Audience. Part II: Logic and Argument for Writing. Part III: The Structure of a Philosophical Essay. Part IV: Composing. Part V: Tactics for Analytic Writing. Part VI: Some Constraints on Content. Part VII: Some Goals of Form.

    Part VIII: Problems with Introductions. Appendix A: "It's Sunday Night and I have an Essay Due Monday Morning." Appendix B: Glossary of Philosophical Terms. Index."

    "It is often advisable to preview a book. That advice holds here. Skim the entire book before reading it more carefully. Depending on your philosophical background, some parts will be more informative than others. Chapter 1 discusses the concepts of author and audience as they apply to a student's philosophical prose. Both students and their professors are in an artificial literary situation. Unlike typical authors, students know less about their subject than their audience, although they are not supposed to let on that they do. Chapter 2 is a crash course on the basic concepts of logic. It contains background information required for understanding subsequent chapters. Those who are familiar with logic will breeze through it, while those with no familiarity with it will need to read slowly and carefully. Chapter 3 discusses the structure of a philosophical essay and forms the heart of the book. The well-worn but sound advice that an essay should have a beginning, a middle, and an end applies to philosophical essays too. Chapter 4 deals with a number of matters related to composing drafts of an essay. Various techniques for composing are discussed. Anyone who knows how to outline, take notes, revise, do research and so on might be able to skip this chapter. Chapter 5 explains several types of arguments used in philosophical reasoning, such as dilemmas, counterexamples and reductio ad absurdum arguments. Chapter 6 discusses some basic requirements that the content of an essay must satisfy. Chapter 7 discusses goals for the form of your writing: coherence, clarity, conciseness, and rigor. Chapter 8 discusses some standard problems students have with the first few pages of an essay.

    Like essays, most books have conclusions that either summarize or tie together the main strands of the work. It would have been artificial to do so in this case, however, since the book as a whole does not develop one main argument but consists of a number of different topics that should be helpful to the student. Appendix A, "It's Sunday Night and I Have an Essay Due Monday Morning," is included for those who bought this book but never got around to reading much of it, and can serve as a conclusion. Many of my students who used one of the first two editions let me know that this was the first part of the book they read, on a Sunday night about six weeks into the semester.

    In order to serve the needs of a wide range of students, the level of difficulty varies from elementary to moderately advanced. Even within individual chapters, the level of difficulty can vary significantly, although each section begins with the simplest material and progresses to the most difficult. Thus, a chapter on a new topic might revert from complex material in the previous chapter to a simple level. I believe that intelligent, hardworking students can move rather quickly from philosophical innocence to moderate sophistication.

    At various points, I have presented fragments of essays to illustrate a stylistic point. The topics of these essay fragments are sometimes controversial and the argumentation provocative. These passages are meant to keep the reader's interest and do not always represent my view. It would be a mistake to focus on the content of these essay fragments when it is their style that is important. Also, it is quite likely that the reader will disagree with a few or even many of the stylistic claims I make. If this leads readers to at least think about why they disagree, and to discover what they prefer and why, then a large part of my goal will have been achieved.

    In the following pages, I often contrast rhetorical elements with logical elements. Going back as far as Socrates, rhetoric has often had a bad name in philosophy. No negative attitude toward rhetoric is implied in this book. "Rhetoric," as I use it, refers to style, that is, to those elements of writing that facilitate communication; and it is a presupposition of this book that these elements are extremely important. After all, like any essay, a philosophical essay that fails to communicate fails in one of its central purposes.

    Philosophical Writing is intended to be practical. It is supposed to help you write better and thereby improve your ability to present Philosophical Writing is intended to be practical. It is supposed to help you write better and thereby improve your ability to present your thoughts. Since almost any class may require you to write an essay that analyzes some kind of concept, the skills gained in learning to write about philosophical concepts may prove useful in writing other types of essays." (from the Introduction 5-7).

  11. Holowchak, M.Andrew. 2004. Critical Reasoning and Philosophy. A Concise Guide to Reading, Evaluating, and Writing Philosophical Works. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    "Critical Reasoning and Philosophy: A Concise Guide to Reading, Evaluating, and Writing Philosophical Works is the culmination of several years of thinking about an integrative, cooperative, and critical approach to teaching introductory courses in philosophy. Philosophers are wedded to a specific type of analytic methodology that requires the honing and use of critical-reasoning skills at different levels: on the one hand, recognizing, reconstructing, and evaluating arguments (usually, those of other philosophers); on the other hand, being able to express themselves philosophically in coherent and tightly argued essays that move philosophical debate forward, however slowly. Students being introduced to philosophy need exposure to these skills and cannot fully appreciate the need for philosophical analysis without them.

    Thus, I have created this text to complement most introductory-level philosophy courses. Its aims, as the title suggests, are to teach students how to read, evaluate, and write philosophy. The book begins analytically by giving students the tools and skills to recognize, break down, and analyze arguments before formally responding to them in writing. It ends synthetically in that, by a book's end, students will have learned how to advance and defend a philosophical position of their own in a critical essay.

    The text comprises six sections, each of which contains a number of modules (nineteen in all). These modules are short, self-teaching units that are designed to make critical evaluation of philosophy user-friendly. The large number of modules and small size of each make, I hope, for ready and easy assimilation of the material. Section One looks at introductory issues through three modules (one on philosophy, one on critical reasoning, and one on how to read philosophy). Section Two concerns recognition and reconstruction of arguments in two modules. Section Three comprises two modules on diagramming arguments. The fourth section, on argument evaluation, has five modules that concern principles and components of evaluation, common deductive and inductive arguments, and common fallacies. Section Five, which is mostly non-philosophical in scope, looks at tips for proper writing in four modules. There are three modules in the final section: one on evaluative essays (focusing on evaluating a philosophical view), one on critical essays (focusing on defending a thesis of one's own), and one on a much neglected topic in philosophy classes-revising and rewriting essays.

    The nineteen modules are complemented by five appendices. Appendix A offers some practice exercises for argument diagramming from famous philosophers. Appendices B and C give, respectively, a sample evaluative essay and a sample critical essay in an attempt to illustrate the principles and suggestions in the final section. These samples are taken from actual essays from students. Appendices D and E complement the final module on revising and rewriting essays. Appendix D is a sample comment sheet that offers guidelines for students to critically analyze each other's papers. Appendix E is a plan-for-revision sheet that offers guidelines for revising an essay that protects students from beginning a hasty revision.

    Overall, I have used drafts of these modules in my introductory courses and have found them to be very helpful tools. I am confident that, even if students cannot distinguish Aristotle from aerosol years after one of my introductory courses, they'll remember many things about what makes an argument good (or bad) and they'll be capable of using these in their everyday-life decisions. I am sure that other philosophers, especially those who find content-based-only approaches to introductory courses on philosophy too limited, will discover that Critical Reasoning and Philosophy is a valuable and effective complement to their courses.

    There are a number of other books on the market with similar aims. Many of these are fine books (I list some in my Bibliography), yet I have found none that balances concern for reading, evaluating, and writing philosophy in a compendious, user-friendly format-hence, the motivation for writing my own book. In addition, I have chosen a module-based approach to this book so as to introduce students to critical-reasoning skills in short, digestible units that can be learned piecemeal and spread out over the course of a term." (from the Preface, X-XI).

  12. Mogck, Brian David. 2008. Writing To Reason. A Companion for Philosophy Students and Instructors. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.

    "I began to compose this companion after grading a stack of midterm papers two feet tall. I noticed that I was making mostly the same comments on each student's paper. It seemed more economical to write the comments once, and refer the students to the master copy of comments as needed.

    If an instructor is grading hundreds of papers, it is often impossible to continue writing detailed criticisms and explanations of mistakes pertaining to the composition of an essay, while remaining engaged with its philosophical content. Consequently, instructors' comments might tend to become less detailed or thorough by the hundredth paper. And the comments that are made can become impatient in tone and cryptic in content. Neither is constructive. Using this companion to address the most common problems students have with philosophical composition will facilitate more substantive, philosophical engagement between instructors and their students.


    This is a relatively short companion. But it contains a number of instructions that you will not be able to internalize immediately. After all, writing is a craft that improves only with disciplined practice. And, even if this companion is successful, it only covers some of the most common characteristics of good writing in philosophy.

    Students sometimes find that they arc asked to write a philosophy paper without first having an idea of what it means to do philosophy or how philosophical writing differs from writing in other disciplines. Part H explains one view of what it means to do philosophy, how to succeed in a philosophy course, how to approach a philosophy paper, and the requirements of academic integrity. Chapter 8 is the most difficult and controversial chapter of this companion, because it is an account of what philosophers are doing when they are doing philosophy. This is neither easy to explain nor likely to elicit much agreement among philosophers. For this reason, your instructor may or may not recommend that you read it, depending on his or her judgment as to whether that view fits well with his or her goals for the course. That is just fine, as Part I is the practical part of the companion.

    In order to use Part I effectively, I would recommend that you first look it over to identify those points that you are encountering for the first time and those points that you suspect are problematic in your own writing. Later, as you compose your paper and work through the drafting process, you can refer back to those points and check them off to make sure that you have addressed them. (Other checklists can be found in sections 1.1, 1.4, and 14).

    Your instructor will also refer you in either of two ways to specific parts of the companion. First, he or she might write a numeral in the margin of your paper -- for example, "5" -- indicating that there is a problem in your paper that is addressed in § 5 of this book. Second, he or she might highlight a theme that is problematic in the essay -- for example, the thesis is unclear -- by writing the keyword "Thesis" on your paper. You may then look up the keyword in the Keywords Cross-referenced table (see Appendix I) to find the sections of this companion that contain specific commentary and advice addressing that issue." (from the Preface).

  13. Seech, Zachary. 2009. Writing Philosophy Papers. Belmont: Wadsworth.

    Fifth revised edition (First edition 1993).

    "Writing Philosophy Papers goes beyond general instructions on paper writing. The whole book focuses on how to write philosophy papers. The kinds of

    papers most often assigned in philosophy classes are explained, and a whole chapter is devoted to writing the traditional philosophy paper: the thesis defense paper. Chapter 7 explains how to use specific philosophical resources, with a strong emphasis on Internet research.

    Whether it's a question about organization, documentation, research, or writing style, the student will now have the answer before submitting a paper to the professor. This should be a relief both to the professor who reads and grades the papers and to the student who can hardly do a good job of writing a paper if the task itself is unclear. Professors assign different types of papers. Writing Philosophy Papers shows students that many paper assignments are hybrids of the basic kinds. In this book the students learn the basic skills, although the actual instructions for their specific classroom assignments will vary. Professors may also specify a preferred style of documentation. Footnotes and endnotes are illustrated in this book. So is the MLA parenthetical documentation. Both methods are clearly displayed in a sample paper in Appendix B. In-text citation and the number system of documentation are also explained. Documentation of Internet sources is illustrated also.

    The focus is on philosophy. The many examples throughout Writing Philosophy Papers are from philosophical concepts or primary and secondary sources in philosophy. In addition, there is a discussion of philosophy courses, philosophical topics, philosophical reasoning, philosophy journals and research books, as well as the Internet and other research sources." (from the Preface).